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In this area, it is possible to observe well-preserved examples of psammophilous vegetation, which is mainly represented by areas of Juniperus macrocarpa: it is a formation that is now quite rare on the island. Moreover, the halophytic formations of Crithmo-Limonietea, garigues with Sarcopoterium spinosum, and the Oleo-Ceratonion area are well-represented along the rocky coastlin. Perennial halophytic formations of saltmarshes, which currently cover extensive areas, are also rich in flora and well-preserved. Overall, this biotope represents a rare example of what the coastal vegetation of southeastern Sicily used to be in the past.
The presence of the Reserve has allowed the maintenance of habitats and their peculiarities in a good state of preservation. Effective surveillance has enabled undisturbed resting and nesting of new bird species, enriching the already substantial list of species. The presence of the eurasian stone-curlew and the greater short-toed lark is interesting due to their rarity and their decline in a great part of their habitats; therefore, they are in a precarious state of conservation. In this context, it should be noted that the Calandra lark, which was present in Vendicari until previous surveys, has recently disappeared. The variety and integrity of the strongly integrated and interconnected natural habitats are reflected in the high biodiversity that characterizes this area, especially concerning mammalian and herpetofauna. The invertebrate fauna is rich in Sicilian endemics. It is highly localized and often known only in the Vendicari area; it includes many rare species that are often found at the northern limit of their distribution range. The study of this fauna is of great scientific interest from a faunistic, zoogeographical, conservation, and eco-ethological perspective.