The wetlands in southeastern Sicily plays a very important role in bird migrations due to its location. These areas show the highest numbers of Ardeids and Sandpipers in Sicily, and there is also abundant passage of Anatids, with numbers which are second only to those recorded in the Gulf of Gela. The site encompasses extremely heterogeneous territorial realities, and only the Vendicari wetland complex is subject to adequate conservation measures. The established presence of the Reserve over the years has allowed for the preservation of habitats and their unique characteristics. Effective surveillance efforts have enabled undisturbed resting and nesting of new bird species, enriching the richness of the species lists. The presence of species, which are associated with agricultural environments such as the Eurasian thick-knee and the greater short-toed lark are significant; they are rare and in sharp decline in much of their habitats: for this reason they are in a precarious state of conservation. Moreover, the Calandra lark, which was present in Vendicari until previous surveys, is nowadays disappeared. In some coastal areas, there are still remnants of plant formations that were once fairly widespread and well-represented in the area: halophilous rock communities with Limonium hybleum, the maquis with Quercus calliprinos, and that with Juniperus macrocarpa.