The island of Vulcano is of significant interest primarily due to its geomorphological features. Part of the island is currently affected by events of secondary volcanism with extensive areas which are characterized by considerable and spectacular gas emissions, mud, and thermal waters. From a floristic perspective, the presence of several Aeolian endemisms is noteworthy, including Cytisus aeolicus. The most significant and widespread vegetation aspects include Genista tyrrhena shrublands and pioneer formations of annual plants and small shrubs (arid meadows). The island lies on an important migratory route for birds of pray and storks, which is part of the same migratory flow as the Strait of Messina. Additionally, the passage of passerines, especially in the autumn, is significant, with an abundance of turdids and sylviids. The herpetofauna is remarkable, including a subspecies Podarcis raffonei, which is endemic to the island. Although the conservation status of its natural habitats cannot be considered optimal, the site hosts a relatively rich invertebrate fauna with some endemic species, sometimes unique to the Aeolian archipelago or the island of Vulcano.